top of page

Fernando Pinto Presents

Public·57 Marty Casey
Gabriel Mammoth
Gabriel Mammoth


Generally roads with control of access are proclaimed in government documents, and have an official status as a controlled access road, sometimes this can include the term motorway, freeway or expressway among others in the road name. These kinds of roads usually have a special designation by the law, with a set of laws specifically applied on them. Generally some restrictions are placed on the kind of vehicles or traffic which can be on roads which should be classed as highway=motorway, such as no pedestrians, bicycles, livestock, horses and so on.


For roads which do not meet the above requirements consider using highway=trunk (high-importance non-motorway roads) and/or motorroad=yes (motorway-like access restrictions), subject to local tagging conventions in your country. See Highway:International equivalence for guidance on the use of the highway=motorway tag in different countries.

The tag highway=motorway_link should be used for the link roads, sliproads or ramps which lead to and from a motorway. Where one motorway terminates or begins on another the highway=motorway_link can be used to separate and identify the different motorway roads and the continuing route; that is, generally two diverging or converging highway=motorway ways should not meet or join in OpenStreetMap, but rather be separated by highway=motorway_link ways.

While the box on the right lists some implied tags, they have been changed several times, they are often country-specific and the community does not agree about the implications. It is suggested to include implied tags when mapping motorways regardless.

Most motorways have shoulders along each carriageway, but you may use shoulder=no to indicate missing shoulder. If a motorway uses emergency bays or emergency refuge areas instead of a shoulder then highway=emergency_bay can be added to nodes where they exist.

A motorway is normally represented by a series two parallel ways, one for each carriageway tagged with highway=motorway. These ways should all point direction of travel and be tagged with oneway=yes. In the less usual case of a motorway where traffic travels in both directions along the same carriageway use a single way and tag it with oneway=no. When drawing parallel ways, place the nodes for each direction next to each other, which results in a better representation on most maps. The following tags may be applicable:

You may draw parallel ways around the sides of the tollbooths, but only in the immediate vicinity of the physical separation. For example, in the photo at right, the motorway would fork where the concrete barriers begin. Use change:lanes=* to indicate a lane change restriction extending much farther back from the tollbooth.

To boost economic development and create stronger ties to the surrounding region, the Serbian government is transforming its transportation infrastructure with the Morava Motorway. The motorway will improve connectivity, efficiency, and traffic flows in established central Serbian and Pan-European corridors, and it will include an expansive telecommunication network to support local communities.

Totaling 112 kilometers, the dual-carriageway tolled motorway will be the country's second major transport artery. It will connect east to west, from Pojate to Preljina, and link the North-South motorway between Serbia's border with Hungary and North Macedonia. The corridor will fit into a larger transportation network spread throughout the Balkans as part of a regional plan to improve trade links and build ties to Western Europe.

By linking to Corridors X and XI, which run north and south to Austria and Greece, the Morava Motorway will expand access to markets in Slovenia, Croatia, North Macedonia, Italy, and Romania. Additionally, the motorway will connect with commercial centers such as Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Bar, a port city in Montenegro.

Beyond the economic benefits, the motorway will have the potential for 1,000 kilometers of fiber optic cable being laid to create a digital corridor. The network will be built using power lines, communication cables, and substations and will include mobile phone base stations at rest areas and near traffic loops to help manage traffic controls.

Not only will the digital corridor provide a fast and reliable exchange of information, but it will enable safe traffic and comfortable use of the motorway and allow for highspeed broadband internet to be fed into the economic development zones.

The Bechtel team delivered the motorway while maintaining a high level of safety and quality. Route 7 traverses mountainous terrain and has 11 bridges, four interchanges and 22 overpasses and underpasses. Before construction began in 2010, the team proposed a plan that included an alternative alignment for the motorway. The new alignment eliminated more than 3 miles (nearly 5 kilometers) of costly tunnels, saving time and hundreds of millions of euros for the government.

Prolonged wakefulness greatly decreases nocturnal driving performance. The development of in-car countermeasures is a future challenge to prevent sleep-related accidents. The aim of this study is to determine whether continuous exposure to monochromatic light in the short wavelengths (blue light), placed on the dashboard, improves night-time driving performance. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 48 healthy male participants (aged 20-50 years) drove 400 km (250 miles) on motorway during night-time. They randomly and consecutively received either continuous blue light exposure (GOLite, Philips, 468 nm) during driving or 2*200 mg of caffeine or placebo of caffeine before and during the break. Treatments were separated by at least 1 week. The outcomes were number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC) and mean standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLP). Eight participants (17%) complained about dazzle during blue light exposure and were removed from the analysis. Results from the 40 remaining participants (mean age SD: 32.911.1) showed that countermeasures reduced the number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC) (F(2,91.11) = 6.64; p

This article examines British attitudes to motorway construction during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, stressing the importance of international events to Britain's motorway building policy. It shows that while national social, political and economic imperatives, movements, and contexts were clearly of primary importance in debates about motorway construction in Britain, these often emerged amidst discussions about road-building developments abroad, particularly in mainland Europe and North America. The article focuses on British reactions to the construction of the German National Socialist Party's Autobahnen in the 1930s, examining how the Autobahnen became embroiled in a spectacular propagandist performance of the modern German nation. Finally, the paper examines the attention paid to European and U.S. motorways in postwar Britain, as engineers, landscape architects, designers, and civil servants undertook research to help inform their plans and designs for British motorways.

The motorway vignette is a road tax sticker for your car. In 2023 an electronic version will become available as well. The vignette is obligatory for driving on the Swiss national road network ('Nationalstrassennetz'). This network consists of the motorways (highways), but includes a few smaller roads as well.

We mostly take public transport in Switzerland, but we still buy the motorway vignette for nearly all of our holidays. That's because our incoming and outgoing journeys are by car. Without the vignette, it would be too time consuming and stressful to avoid the Swiss motorways.

The fine for driving on a Swiss motorway without a vignette is CHF 200, plus the costs of a vignette. If you drive with a vignette that is not applied correctly or damaged, that is also considered driving without a vignette.

You're allowed to drive without the vignette if you avoid the motorways. In most cases, the inconvenience of doing so is not worth the money you'll save. But for short trips into Switzerland a vignette might be unnecessary.

If you choose to drive without the motorway vignette, it's essential to avoid the roads that are announced with signs that have white text on a green background. Another way to recognize such roads are their numbers, which have the letter A as a prefix. The A3 is the motorway connecting Basel to Zurich, for example. Many of these roads have an E-number as well, which is the European motorway numbering system.

Avoiding the motorways takes extra time. Also, more concentrated driving is required because you will instead be using regional roads. Those roads cross villages, have traffic lights and pedestrian crossings, and there will be other traffic such as bikes and agricultural vehicles.

For example: if you drive from one end of Lake Lucerne to the other (Lucerne to Flüelen), it takes 40 minutes via the motorway south of the lake and 75 minutes via smaller roads north of the lake. The northern road is more scenic, but the time difference is considerable.

Smart motorways comprise an integrated package of intelligent transport systems (ITS) interventions. This includes coordinated ramp signalling, speed and lane use management, traveller information (using variable message signs) and network intelligence (such as from vehicle detection equipment).

Austroads' Guide to Smart Motorways provides practitioners with a standardised set of smart motorway information within a single reference document to support the delivery of safe and efficient smart motorways. It primarily comprises guidance on the selection, design and layout of ITS elements within a smart motorway project.

Drivers of vehicles with a permissible maximum weight exceeding 3.5 t (e.g. heavy goods vehicles, buses, heavy mobile homes) must pay a mileage-based toll for the use of motorways and expressways.

To be able to pay this toll, you need to get a so-called GO-Box before you drive onto a motorway or expressway. The toll can only be paid if you have a GO-Box, which is available from many petrol stations and other GO-Box partners in Austria. You can find a full list of outlets here. 041b061a72


FernandoPintoPresents functions as a Management/ Bookings/ E...

Marty Casey

bottom of page